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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Elin: Hej allihopa! I’m Elin.
Becky: Hi everyone, I’m Becky. Welcome back to SwedishPod101.com. This is Upper Beginner, Season 1, Lesson 9 - Is Somebody Missing in Sweden? In this lesson you’ll learn how to use passive voice.
Elin: The conversation takes place over the phone.
Becky: It’s between Emma and her daughter’s kindergarten teacher Maria, and they are using informal Swedish, since they know each other.
Elin: Great! Let's listen to the conversation.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Becky: I’m a bit curious about how the kindergarten system works in Sweden - could you tell us a bit about that?
Elin: Absolutely! The Swedish word for kindergarten is “daghem”, but Swedes tend to use the abbreviation “dagis” more often.
Becky: And what age are the children who attend kindergarten?
Elin: There are between 1 and 5, and parents who work or study have the legal right to put their children in kindergarten, after the child has turned 1 year old.
Becky: And children between the ages of 4 and 5 are entitled to be there 15 hours a week, without having to pay any fees. For any additional hours spent at kindergarten, the parents of the child usually pay a fee that’s based on their income. Who runs these kindergartens - are there private companies?
Elin: Well, there are kindergartens run by private companies, but the majority are run by the local governments, and over 80 percent of all children enrolled in a kindergarten in Sweden, attend these.
Becky: Ok, that’s all good information. Now, let’s move on to the vocab.
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Becky: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Elin: The first expression that we need to address is the expression “en kvart”.
Becky: And that means “15 minutes” right?
Elin: Yes, it does mean “15 minutes”, but it literally translates to “a quarter”.
Becky: I see. So it’s used as a time reference.
Elin: That’s right. So in this lesson’s dialog, when Emma said, “I’ll be there in 15 minutes”, in Swedish she said, “jag är där om en kvart”.
Becky: Okay! Can it also be used when you want to say things like,”it’s a quarter to three”?
Elin: Absolutely, and that would be, “klockan är kvart i tre”.
Becky: That’s good to know! What else do you have in store for us?
Elin: Next up, we have the pronoun “någonting”.
Becky: And that means “anything”, right?
Elin: Yes, but it can also correspond to the pronoun “something”.
Becky: So in Swedish you don’t differentiate between them?
Elin: Precisely. And it might also be helpful to know that Swedes, when talking, are more likely to say “nån ting” instead of “någonting”.
Becky: But in writing, it’s more correct to use the longer version?
Elin: Yes that’s right!
Becky: Ok, now let’s move on to the grammar!
GRAMMAR POINT
Elin: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use passive voice.
Becky: There are two examples of this from the dialogue, one when Emma said, "It’s Monday, so she’ll be picked up by David,” which was...
Elin: “Det är måndag, så hon ska hämtas av David.”
Becky: And the other sentence was when Emma said, “she is always picked up by her dad on Mondays”...
Elin: Which was - “hon hämtas alltid av sin pappa på måndagar”.
Becky: Okay, first let’s review what passive voice is.
Elin: Sure. It’s the opposite of an active voice sentence.
Becky: And what is an active voice sentence? Do you have an example?
Elin: Yes, an example of an active voice sentence would be, “Lisa åt kakan” meaning “Lisa ate the cake”.
Becky: Here, the subject of the sentence, in this case “Lisa”, carries out the activity the verb of the sentence describes, so she eats the cake. Now what about a passive voice sentence?
Elin: An example of a passive voice sentence would be,”kakan åts av Lisa” meaning “the cake was eaten by Lisa”.
Becky: So in a passive voice sentence, the object of the active voice sentence, in this case, “the cake”, becomes the subject. And the subject of the active voice sentence, in this case “Lisa”, will either not be mentioned, or if it is mentioned, will become the agent. Can you explain what we mean by agent please Elin?
Elin: Ok, let’s take the passive voice sentence “kakan åts av Lisa” meaning “the cake was eaten by Lisa”.
Becky: Here, “Lisa” has gone from being the subject of the passive voice of the active sentence, to becoming the agent of the passive voice sentence.
Elin: And the fact that “Lisa” is the agent of the sentence, is marked by the preposition “av”, which means “by”. That always appears before the agent in passive voice sentences.
Becky: Maybe we can try to illustrate the difference between active and passive voice sentences with one more example.
Elin: Sure, let’s talk about the active voice sentence “Kalle läste boken”, which means “Kalle was reading the book”.
Becky: Okay, so in this active voice sentence, “kalle” is actually the subject and “the book” is the object.
Elin: That’s right, but if we make it into a passive voice sentence and say, “boken lästes av Kalle” meaning “the book was read by Kalle”...
Becky: ...Then “the book” becomes the subject of the sentence and “Kalle” is the agent of the sentence, marked with the preposition “by”.
Elin: That’s right! I think you’ve got it!
Becky: Now, let’s talk more about the verbs that appear in passive voice sentences.
Elin: Well, in Swedish there is more than one way to form the passive voice, by changing the verbs that appear in the passive voice sentences.
Becky: Okay, and what are these?
Elin: Firstly, there is the “s-passive voice”, and then you can also create passive voice with verbs in their past participle form.
Becky: But in this lesson we’ll only go through how to create passive voice using the “s-passive voice”. So how do we do that?
Elin: It’s pretty straightforward. When you use passive voice for verbs in their infinitive, preterit and supine forms, you simply have to add an –s to the end of the verb.
Becky: Can you explain a bit more?
Elin: Let’s look at the two sentences that we compared before, “Lisa åt kakan” which was “Lisa ate the cake” and “kakan åts av Lisa” which was “the cake was eaten by Lisa”.
Becky: What about them?
Elin: These are sentences that use the supine form of the verb “att äta”, which is “åt” and means “eaten”. But in the passive voice sentence “kakan åts av Lisa”, an –s is added to the verb.
Becky: Now I understand. Let’s get the listeners to practice.
Elin: Repeat after me - “kakan åts av Lisa”[pause].
Becky: Do you have another example?
Elin: Let’s have a look at one of the verbs that appears in this lesson’s dialog. The verb “att hämta” meaning “to pick up”.
Becky: And what are the infinitive, preterit and supine forms of this verb?
Elin: They are “att hämta”, “hämtade” and “hämtat”. But if we use them in a passive voice sentence, we need to add an –s to the end of the verb.
Becky: And how would that sound?
Elin: “att hämtas”, “hämtades” and “hämtats”. Listeners, repeat after me please!
Elin: “att hämtas”[pause], “hämtades”[pause],“hämtats”[pause].
Becky: But how about verbs in their present tense? How do they change in a passive voice sentence?
Elin: Unfortunately, that’s a bit more complicated. For the first group of verbs that conjugate in the regular way and end in –ar, “a”, “r”, in their present tense, the –r before is dropped before the ending –s is added.
Becky: Do you have an example?
Elin: Yes! The verb “to pick up” in its present tense “hämtar”, changes to “hämtas”. Listeners, repeat after me!
Elin: “hämtar”[pause] “hämtas”[pause].
Becky: And for the second group of verbs that conjugate regularly?
Elin: For the second group of verbs that conjugate in the regular way and end in -er, “e”, “r”, in their present tense, the -er is dropped.
Becky: Doesn’t the verb “to read” belong to this group?
Elin: Yes, the present tense of the verb “to read” is “läser”. And this changes to “läs”. Listeners, repeat after me!
Elin: “Läser”[pause], “läs”[pause].
Becky: And for the third group of verbs that conjugate regularly?
Elin: For the third group of verbs that conjugate in the regular way and end in a -r in their present tense, the -r is dropped before adding the ending -s.
Becky: Can you give us some examples?
Elin: Yes, the present tense for the verb “to fry”, is “steker” and this becomes “steks”.
Becky: Listeners, repeat after Elin!
Elin: “Steker”[pause], “steks”[pause].
Becky: Ok. As always, make sure you check the lesson notes to reinforce what you’ve learned in this lesson.

Outro

Becky: Okay that’s it for this lesson. Thanks for listening everyone, and we’ll see you next time.
Elin: Hej då!

9 Comments

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SwedishPod101.com
Monday at 6:30 pm
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Hi listeners! Do teachers care that much in your country?

Swedishpod101.comVerified
Monday at 11:36 pm
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Hi Erika,

Thank you again for your comment. Good way to explain the use of "som" in this instance.


Ha en bra dag!

VickyT

Team Swedishpod101.com

Erika
Sunday at 6:35 am
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Hi Gary,

"som" is like "that" in english and it describes a noun.

This is an apple that is from a swedish farm.

Det här är ett äpple som är från en svensk trädgård.

SwedishPod101.comVerified
Saturday at 2:05 am
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Hej Gary!


It really looks like you have got the hang of how to use "som"! Excellent work!


The only sentence that needs some revision is the last sentence which should be "Jag undrar vilken läxa som kommer sen".


Cheers,

Satsuki Team SwedishPod101.com

Gary
Friday at 10:33 pm
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Hej Satsuki !


Thank you for your replies, especially regarding the use of, "som".


After some further reading, I believe that I now understand better the use of, "som". In the context of the lesson sentence, “Jag undrar bara vem som ska hämta Elsa idag?”, would I be correct in saying that, "som" is inserted between "vem" and "ska" because "vem" is a question word (vem, vad, var etc) that has become the subject, or part of the subject of a subordinate clause question ?


If my understanding is correct, would the following be correct :


Någon frågade mig vad som har hänt.


Jag vill fortfarande veta vem som tvättade bilen.


Jag har varit undrat vilken läxa som kommer sedan


Tack så mycket och hälsningar


Gary

SwedishPod101.comVerified
Tuesday at 5:02 am
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Hej Gary!


As for your first question, I'm not really sure what you mean when you say that it would act as the subject of the verb?

The first of your sentences "Kan du låta mig veta vem som kommer på festen" is perfect. Great work! The second sentence not entirely correct. You can either say "Vem skulle vilja åka på bio ikväll?" (Who would like to go to the movies tonight?) or "Är det någon av er som skulle vilja åka på bio ikväll" (Are there any of you who would like to go to the movies tonight?) In the latter case, where "som" is used, it is referring back to "er" (you).


As for your second question, yes it would be perfectly fine to not use "att" and say, "Jag ska försöka prata svenska". Here you don't need to any preposition like "på".


Hope this helped! If you have more questions, please let me know!


Cheers,

Satsuki Team SwedishPod101.com

Gary
Saturday at 7:52 pm
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Hej Satsuki !


Many thanks for your quick response :smile:


Regarding the use of "som", I´m assuming then that this must be used with "vem" so that it can act as the subject of the verb ? Hence, would the following be correct then ?


Kan du låt mig veta vem som kommer på festen?

Vem som skulle vilja åka på bio ikväll ?


Regarding the use of, "att", because it´s optional, it really doesn´t matter then if it´s used or not with the verbs that you listed ? Hence, could I say, "Jag ska försöka prata på svenska." ?


Tack så mycket och hälsningar


Gary

SwedishPod101.comVerified
Saturday at 5:07 am
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Hej Gary!


Thank you for your comments and I will of course try to answer your questions as good as I can.


"Som" can mean different things in Swedish, but here its a pronoun which refers back to "vem". This would also be the funktion of "som" in sentences like "Jag undrar vem som åt den sista kakan" (I am wondering who ate the last cookie).


For your second question, your absolutely right that we usually remove the "att", but with some auxiliary verbs we do not have to, its optional. "Försöker" is one of these along with börja, pröva och sluta.


Hope my answers has helped!


Cheers,

Satsuki Team SwedishPod101.com

Gary
Friday at 11:00 pm
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Hej Satsuki


Jag hopaas att du mår bra !


I have a couple of questions regarding this lesson:


Firstly, in the line from the dialogue, "Jag undrar bara vem som ska hämta Elsa idag?", what is the purpose of the word, "som" ?


Secondly, in the lesson notes, there are two very similar example sentences, "Jag kan försöka att göra det imorgon." and "Jag ska försöka ringa Kalle idag." To me, these two sentences are identical in their make up, but the first uses, "att" before the second verb after the auxiliary, whereas the second does not.


I thought that the, "att" was always dropped when using (infinitive) verbs after an auxliary verb. Hence, I would have written the first sentence as, "Jag kan försöka göra det imorgon." ?


Any help much appreciated !


Tack så mycket och hälsningar


Gary