Dialogue - Swedish

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Vocabulary

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absolut absolutely
servitris waitress
snabbmatsrestaurang fast food restaurant
serviceinriktad service oriented
det är okej it is okay, that is okay
att söka to search
att provjobba to test work
helst inte rather not
stresstålig can handle stress
morgontrött tired in the morning

Lesson Notes

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Grammar

The Focus of this Lesson is Talking about Past Experiences Using the Present Perfect and Adjectives
Hej! Har du arbetat på restaurang förut?

"Hi! Have you worked at a restaurant before?"


1. Perfekt, the Present Perfect in Swedish


We can use the present perfect to talk about situations that began before now, but continue into the present.

You'll notice the form of the perfect by the presence of har, "has" or "have," before the main verb and that the main verb is found in the supine or past form.

For example, Jag har redan ätit middag, meaning "I have already eaten dinner."

Ätit, "eaten," is the supine or past form of att äta, "to eat," and with har, "has, have," before it, the verb shows that the eating happened prior to (or before) now.

The auxiliary verb is in its present tense form (har), and the the main verb, on the other hand, is put into its supine form. Let's look at one more example.

  1.      Jag har sovit.
                "I have slept."

In the dialogue, Lennart asks Annie, Har du arbetat på restaurang förut? meaning "Have you worked in a restaurant before?"

This is an example of the present perfect, in Swedish called perfekt, in a question form.

Notice how the structure is "have" har + "you" du + past participle of arbeta. It's in the present perfect because Lennart is asking Annie whether she has worked in a restaurant before now.

Annie answered:

  1. Jag har arbetat på en snabbmats restaurang förut
    "I have worked in a fast-food restaurant before."

Here are some general examples of statements in the presentperfect.

For example:

  1.     Jag har redan ätit middag.
    "I have already eaten dinner."

The person has finished eating dinner not too long along ago; therefore, it is connected with the present.

  1.     Elvis har lämnat byggnaden.
    "Elvis has left the building."

Here, news is being spread about what Elvis did; therefore, it is in the present perfect tense.

  1.      Angelica har läst boken tre gånger redan.
    "Angelica has read the book three times already."

We describe the number of times Angelica has read the book in the present perfect because of its tie to the present.

  1.     Vi har haft hunden sedan april.
    "We've had the dog since April."

The act of having the dog has continued up until now; therefore, it is in the present perfect.

2. Compound Adjectives to Describe Personality


Mixing words to create new adjectives

In Swedish we sometimes put two words together to make them into one new word with a stronger meaning. So if you learn these base words below, you can get a general idea of what the new word means.

Tålig

If you add the word -tålig to a noun, it describes someone or something who can handle negative things well.

  • stresstålig meaning "to be able to handle stress" or "stress resistant"

To be stresstålig means to be able to cope with stress well.

  • vattentålig meaning "water-resistant"

When you add -tålig to vatten, it means that the product can handle water well.

  • stryktålig meaning "resistant to beating"

Stryktålig is used for either a person who can get beaten up without getting hurt easily, or a thing which you can be rough with, without it breaking.

For example:

  1.      Jag skulle vilja köpa en vattentålig och stryktålig telefon.
                "I would like to buy a water-resistant and damage-resistant phone."

Morgon

There are some words which you can add to the word morgon "morning," to describe your personality in the morning. You may also use other times of the day.

  • Morgontrött meaning "tired in the morning"

Morgontrött means that you are tired in the morning, and literally means "morning tired."

  • Morgonpigg meaning "alert in the morning"

Morgonpigg means that it's easy for you to wake up in the morning and that you don't feel tired early in the morning. Pigg means "alert" or "lively."

For example:

  1.      Jag är en morgonpigg människa, så jag vaknar alltid innan klockan fem.
               "I'm a morning person, so I always wake up before five."

You can also combine kväll,"evening," to make words like kvällspigg, "alert in the evening," or kvällstrött, "tired in the evening."

Glad

You use the word -glad after a noun to describe someone who happily does something or likes something.

  • pratglad meaning "talkative" or "chatty"

We use this word when describing someone who likes talking, and does it a lot. Prat means "chat" or "talk," and glad means "glad" or "happy."

  • matglad meaning "to like to eat" or "happy with food"

We use this word when describing someone who likes eating, and does it a lot. Mat means "food."

For example:

  1.      Din flickvän är verkligen pratglad.
               "Your girlfriend is really talkative."

You can use almost any noun with -glad.

Examples from the dialogue:

  1. Ja, jag har arbetat på en snabbmatsrestaurang förut, så jag är stresstålig och serviceinriktad.
    "Yes, I have worked in a fast food restaurant, so I can handle stress and I am service oriented."
  2. Jag kan arbeta alla dagar i veckan, men helst inte tidiga morgonar. Jag är rätt så morgontrött.
    "I can work every day of the week, but I would rather not work early mornings. I am pretty tired in the morning."

Sample Sentences


  1. Har du varit medlem i något band förut?
    "Have you been a member of a band before?"
  2. Han är väldigt pratglad och trevlig.
    "He is very talkative and nice."
  3. Jag har gått till skolan varje dag i tio år.
    "I've gone to school every day for ten years."

Cultural Insights

Part-time Jobs in Sweden


In Sweden, many students have part-time jobs. Common jobs are in restaurants or supermarkets. If you are under the age of 13, you cannot work between 22:00 and 6:00 in the morning. You are at most allowed to work 2 hours on a school day, and 7 hours on a school-free day. A person who is over the age of 16 can work up to 8 hours a day, 40 hours a week. A person under the age of 18 is not allowed to work between midnight and 5:00 in the morning. They also must have a break after 4.5 hours of work. Sweden has strict laws that protect working young people. The salary is also pretty high for part-time jobs, even though the salary you get depends on your age. A 16-year-old might get around 60SEK an hour while a 20-year-old might get 110SEK an hour. If you don't earn more than 18,824 SEK a year as a youth, you don't have to pay taxes.

9 SEK = 1 EUR

8.5 SEK = 1 USD

*all data is from 2015

Useful expression:

  1. kronor i timmen
    "crowns per hour"

Lesson Transcript

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INTRODUCTION
Kellie: Hi everyone, and welcome to SwedishPod101.com. This is Intermediate, Season, 1 Lesson 1 - A Swedish Job Interview. I’m Kellie.
Vicky: Hej! I'm Vicky.
Kellie: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to talk about past experiences using the present perfect and adjectives. The conversation takes place at a restaurant.
Vicky: It's between Annie and Lennart.
Kellie: The speakers are strangers, so they’ll use both formal and informal Swedish. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
Annie: Hej, jag heter Annie och jag söker jobbet som servitris.
Lennart: Hej! Har du arbetat på restaurang förut?
Annie: Ja, jag har arbetat på en snabbmatsrestaurang förut, så jag är stresstålig och serviceinriktad.
Lennart: Det låter bra. Vilka tider och dagar kan du jobba?
Annie: Jag kan arbeta alla dagar i veckan, men helst inte tidiga morgonar. Jag är rätt så morgontrött.
Lennart: Det är okej. Kan du komma in imorgon och provjobba?
Annie: Absolut! Vi ses då!
Kellie: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Annie: Hi, my name is Annie and I’m applying for the waitress job.
Lennart: Hi! Have you worked at a restaurant before?
Annie: Yes, I’ve worked in a fast food restaurant, so I can handle stress and I’m service oriented.
Lennart: That sounds good. What times and days can you work?
Annie: I can work every day of the week, but I would rather not work early mornings. I’m pretty tired in the morning.
Lennart: That’s okay. Can you come tomorrow and do a work trial?
Annie: Absolutely! See you then!
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Kellie: Vicky, is it common for Swedish students to have part-time jobs?
Vicky: Yes, in Sweden many students have part-time jobs.
Kellie: What kinds of jobs do they usually do?
Vicky: The most common would be working in restaurants or supermarkets.
Kellie: Are there any specific regulations covering students and underage workers?
Vicky: Yes, for example, if you’re under the age of 13, you can’t work between ten at night and six in the morning. At most, you’re allowed to work two hours on a school day, and seven hours on a school-free day. In general, Sweden has strict laws that protect young workers.
Kellie: How about the wages?
Vicky: The salary is also pretty high for part-time jobs, but the amount you get depends on your age. For example, a 20-year-old might get 110SEK an hour.
Kellie: 1 USD is about 8.5 SEK, so it’s more than 12 USD per hour! That’s quite high! What’s the Swedish expression for “crowns per hour”?
Vicky: kronor i timmen
Kellie: Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Kellie: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Vicky: servitris [natural native speed]
Kellie: waitress
Vicky: servitris[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Vicky: servitris [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Vicky: snabbmatsrestaurang [natural native speed]
Kellie: fast food restaurant
Vicky: snabbmatsrestaurang[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Vicky: snabbmatsrestaurang [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Vicky: stresstålig [natural native speed]
Kellie: can handle stress
Vicky: stresstålig[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Vicky: stresstålig [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Vicky: serviceinriktad [natural native speed]
Kellie: service oriented
Vicky: serviceinriktad[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Vicky: serviceinriktad [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Vicky: att söka [natural native speed]
Kellie: to search
Vicky: att söka[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Vicky: att söka [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Vicky: det är okej [natural native speed]
Kellie: it is okay, that is okay
Vicky: det är okej[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Vicky: det är okej [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have...
Vicky: att provjobba [natural native speed]
Kellie: to test work
Vicky: att provjobba[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Vicky: att provjobba [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have...
Vicky: absolut [natural native speed]
Kellie: absolutely
Vicky: absolut[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Vicky: absolut [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Vicky: helst inte [natural native speed]
Kellie: rather not
Vicky: helst inte[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Vicky: helst inte [natural native speed]
Kellie: And last..
Vicky: morgontrött [natural native speed]
Kellie: tired in the morning
Vicky: morgontrött[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Vicky: morgontrött [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Kellie: Let's have a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is...
Vicky: att söka
Kellie: meaning "to search for."
Vicky: It can also mean "to apply for." In fact, you can use it not only when you’re looking for something, but also when looking for or applying for a job, as in Att söka jobb.
Kellie: You can use this verb both for abstract and actual things.
Vicky: Right, for example, you can say Jag söker meningen med livet.
Kellie: Meaning “I'm searching for the meaning of life.” Can you give us an example referring to an actual thing?
Vicky: Sure. For example, you can say... Jag söker efter en trevlig man med humor.
Kellie: ..which means "I am searching for a nice man with a sense of humor." Just be careful, because when this word means "to search" or "to look," it can sound a bit formal.
Vicky: Right, then you can use att leta instead.
Kellie: Okay, what's the next word?
Vicky: att låta bra
Kellie: meaning "to sound good."
Vicky: You can use att låta bra both when you hear an idea that sounds good, or when you hear music that sounds nice.
Kellie: Can you give us an example using this word?
Vicky: For example, you can say.. Jag tycker Pers förslag låter bra.
Kellie: .. which means "I think Per's suggestion sounds good. "
Vicky:You can also use att verka bra
Kellie: meaning “to seem good.”
Kellie: Okay, what's the next word?
Vicky: helst inte,
Kellie: meaning "rather not."
Vicky: Helst is an adverb and it means "best." Inte means "not." Put together, they mean "rather not."
Kellie: You use this expression when you’d prefer to not do something. It doesn't mean that you can't do it, just that you don't really want to.
Vicky: Also, you can answer a yes or no question with helst inte if you want to make your negation less strong.
Kellie: What’s an example using this word?
Vicky: You can say.. Jag äter helst inte varma mackor varje dag.
Kellie: .. which means "I'd rather not eat toast every day." Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Kellie: In this lesson, you'll learn how to talk about past experience with the present perfect and compound adjectives. Vicky, first let’s talk about the present perfect in general.
Vicky: We can use the present perfect to talk about situations that began before now, but continue into the present.
Kellie: How can we recognize this tense?
Vicky: You’ll know it’s the perfect form from the presence of har, meaning "has" or "have," before the main verb, and by the fact that the main verb is found in the supine or past form.
Kellie: Can you give us an example?
Vicky: Jag har redan ätit middag
Kellie: Which means "I have already eaten dinner."
Vicky: Ätit, meaning "eaten," is the supine or past form of att äta, "to eat," and with har, meaning "has,” or “have," before it, the verb shows that the eating happened before now.
Kellie: So the auxiliary verb is in its present tense form, and the main verb is put into its supine form. Let’s look at one more example.
Vicky: Jag har sovit.
Kellie: meaning "I have slept." Can we have an example from the dialogue?
Vicky: Sure. Lennart asks Annie, Har du arbetat på restaurang förut?
Kellie: meaning “Have you worked in a restaurant before?” Notice how in the question, the word order changes a little, and the subject comes after the auxiliary verb.
Vicky: Right, it’s Har du arbetat? Annie answers with Jag har arbetat på en snabbmats restaurang förut,
Kellie: Meaning “I’ve worked in a fast-food restaurant before.” Let’s see another couple of examples.
Vicky: Angelica har läst boken tre gånger redan.
Kellie: "Angelica has read the book three times already." We’re describing the number of times Angelica has read the book in the present perfect because of its tie to the present.
Vicky: Vi har haft hunden sedan april.
Kellie: "We've had the dog since April." The act of having the dog has continued up until now, so it’s in the present perfect. Ok, let’s now switch to the compound adjectives.
Vicky: In Swedish, we sometimes put two words together to make them into one new word with a stronger meaning.
Kellie: If you learn these base words we’re about to go over, you can get a general idea of what the new word means. What are the words we’re going to look at in this lesson?
Vicky: Tålig, morgon and glad
Kellie: Let’s start with...
Vicky: -tålig. If you add the word -tålig to a noun, it describes someone or something who can handle negative things well.
Kellie: Can you give us an example?
Vicky: stresstålig
Kellie: meaning "to be able to handle stress" or “stress resistant.”
Vicky: To be stresstålig means to be able to cope with stress well. Other examples are vattentålig and stryktålig
Kellie: Respectively meaning “water-resistant” and “resistant to beating.”
Vicky: The second one, stryktålig, is used for either a person who can get beaten up without getting hurt easily, or a thing you can be rough with that won’t break.
Kellie: Ok, what’s the next word?
Vicky: morgon
Kellie: Which literally means “morning.”
Vicky: There are some words that can be added to the word morgon.
Kellie: These compounds can describe your personality in the morning, but you may also use other times of the day. Can you give us an example?
Vicky: Morgontrött
Kellie: which means “tired in the morning.”
Vicky: The opposite could be Morgonpigg
Kellie: "alert in the morning."
Vicky: That means that it’s easy for you to wake up and that you don’t feel tired early in the morning. Pigg, by itself, means “alert” or “lively.”
Kellie: Could you also combine these with the word meaning “evening”?
Vicky: Yes, you can also combine kväll, meaning “evening,” to make words like kvällspigg, “alert in the evening,” or kvällstrött, “tired in the evening.”
Kellie: What’s the last word we’re looking at?
Vicky: -glad. you use the word -glad after a noun to describe someone who happily does something or likes something. For example, pratglad
Kellie: meaning "talkative" or "chatty."
Vicky: Prat means “chat” or “talk”, and glad means “glad” or “happy.” Another example is matglad
Kellie: meaning "to like to eat" or "happy with food,"
Vicky: Mat means “food.” We use matglad when describing someone who likes eating, and does it a lot.
Kellie: Let’s wrap up this lesson with a couple of sample sentences.
Vicky: Har du varit medlem i något band förut?
Kellie: "Have you been a member of a band before?"
Vicky: Han är väldigt pratglad och trevlig.
Kellie: "He is very talkative and nice."

Outro

Kellie: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Vicky: Bye!